What is Myopia?
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error, which means that the eye does not bend or refract light properly to a single focus to see images clearly. In myopia, close objects look clear but distant objects appear blurred. Myopia is a common condition that affects an estimated 25 percent of Americans. It is an eye focusing disorder, not an eye disease.
Myopia in Children
Myopia is inherited and is often discovered in children when they are between ages eight and 12 years old. During the teenage years, when the body grows rapidly, myopia may become worse. Between the ages of 20 and 40, there is usually little change. Myopia can also occur in adults.
If the myopia is mild, it is called low myopia. Severe myopia is known as high myopia. High myopia will usually stabilize between the ages of 20-30 years old. With high myopia, you can usually correct vision easretina/retinal_detachmentily with glasses, contact lenses or sometimes with refractive surgery.
Patients with myopia have a higher risk of developing a detached retina. Ask your ophthalmologist to discuss the warning signs of retinal detachment with you if you are in this risk category. If the retina does detach and it is discovered early enough, a surgical procedure can usually repair it. It is important to have regular eye examinations by an ophthalmologist to watch for changes in the retina that might lead to retinal detachment.
What Causes Myopia?In order for our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or refracted by the tear film, the cornea and the lens so they can focus on the retina, the layer of light-sensitive cells lining the back of the eye. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve, which is actually part of the brain.
Myopia occurs when the eye is longer than normal or has a cornea (clear front window of the eye) that is too steep. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of on it. This allows you to see near objects clearly, but distant objects will appear blurred.
Nearsightedness: Myopia Symptoms
Some of the signs and symptoms of myopia include eyestrain, headaches, squinting to see properly and difficulty seeing objects far away, such as road signs or a blackboard at school.
Myopia symptoms may be apparent in children when they are between ages eight and 12 years old. During the teenage years, when the body grows rapidly, myopia may become worse. Between the ages of 20 and 40, there is usually little change.
Nearsightedness: Myopia Diagnosis
Your eye doctor can diagnose myopia as part of a comprehensive eye examination. He or she will determine if you have myopia by using a standard vision test, where you are asked to read letters on a chart placed at the other end of the room.
If the vision test shows that you are nearsighted, your doctor will use certain examination devices to learn what is causing the myopia. By shining a special light into your eyes, a retinoscope will be used to see how light reflects off your retina. As the light is reflected back from inside the eye, it can indicate whether a person is nearsighted or farsighted.
Your doctor will also use a phoropter, an instrument that the measures the amount of refractive error you have and helps determine the proper prescription to correct it.
Nearsightedness: Myopia Treatment
There is no best method for correcting myopia. The most appropriate correction for you depends on your eyes and your lifestyle. You should discuss your lifestyle with your ophthalmologist to decide which correction may be most effective for you.
Eyeglasses or contact lenses are the most common methods of correcting myopia symptoms. They work by refocusing light rays on the retina, compensating for the shape of your eye. Eyeglasses can also help protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolet (UV) light rays. A special lens coating that screens out UV light is available.
In many cases, people may choose to correct myopia with LASIK or ICL surgery. These surgical procedures are used to correct or improve your vision by reshaping the cornea, or front surface of your eye, effectively adjusting your eye’s focusing ability.